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The Netherlands uses the Euro, the same currency as in the adjacent countries Germany and Belgium (and France, Spain and Italy). ATMs are widely available; they invariably accept the large American networks (Plus, Cirrus) and allow you a choice of languages. Credit cards are widely accepted at hotels, restaurants and tourist destinations, though not at all the shops (except those catering to tourists, department stores, etc). Supermarkets do not accept credit cards.
Amexco (and some banks) now do cash cards in many currencies. So, instead of carrying travelers checks in Euros (or any currency) you might consider buying cash cards. They can be used like any debit card and are protected by a PIN. Some shops in Amsterdam accept Euro debit cards (look for the Maestro sign).
Travelers checks can be cashed at the airport but cannot be cashed at the post office. Many banks do not cash travelers checks or exchange money (bank notes) as they no longer handle cash (they sell insurance, loan money, etc.) except via ATMs.