Most economical: hitchhiking.
Most realistic if you have a short timeframe: the train, although there might be cheap buses between Amsterdam and Haarlem. For a journey planner for trains, and ticket prices (you won't have any of the discounts), see http://www.ns.nl/en/travellers/home
(Note that Den Bosch is also known as || 's Hertogenbosch || but the journey planner accepts both names for that same city.)
Thanks Cecilia. Bit too old for hitchhiking Im afraid. I will try the link you sent.
Please note that only the train ticket machines at Schiphol Airport and at Amsterdam Central Station accept foreign credit / debit cards. They don't take banknotes (cash), only coins. At the other stations the machines accept Dutch debit cards only, so you will either need to buy tickets with loads of coins and hope the machine won't spit them out, or you'll need to buy tickets by going to a counter and you pay an extra fee for that... Small train stations don't even have a counter, only machines (that take coins only)... but luckily you probably won't be there, and will at least have option B: the counters with live persons.
NS railway company got stuck in the 20th century..... sorry on their behalf!
Perhaps there is a way around this by buying an anonymous OV chip card (train card) but I don't know how that works for foreigners... I'm hoping Erik will respond to this question because he's the guru of ticketing and train travel. :-)Edited: 16 June 2013, 22:56
There are no tourist cards for trains. You can buy an anonymous OV Chipcard for €7.50 (per person) and
use it to make your travels by charging the card with money. This is the unfriendly price of the plastic card, which you can use for a few years after buying it, but doesn't help tourists much.
To get an idea of prices and schedules; http://9292.nl/en# this planner gives you train, bus, trams and metros.
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